Prebiyotik, Probiyotik ve Sinbiyotiklerin, Kısa ve Uzun Dönemde Tokluk ve Besin Tüketim Üzerine Etkisi
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Prebiotics and probiotics are thought to play a role in appetite control and body weight regulation; but little is known about this topic. This study was planned to examine the effects of prebiotic and probiotics on short and long term fasting, satiety, dietary intake, and serum hunger and satiety hormone levels. The study consisted of 2 phases. In the first phase, a double-blind, randomized, crossover study design was used, and it was performed with 16 healthy male participants aged 19-30 years. In this phase, the prebiotic (200mL milk+16g inulin), probiotic (200mL milk + Lactobacillus casei 431 [>106 cfu/mL]+16g maltodextrin), synbiotic (200mL milk+16g inulin + Lactobacillus casei 431 [>106 cfu/mL]) and control (200mL milk+16g maltodextrin) test drinks were consumed with a standard breakfast on four separate test days by one week intervals, and their effects on dietary intake, hunger, satiety and appetite were assessed. The second phase was performed with 21 healthy male participants aged 19-30 years, using a placebo-controlled double-blind, randomized study design. Participants consumed the control (200mL milk+16g maltodextrin) or synbiotics (200mL milk+16g inulin+ Lactobacillus casei [>106 cfu/mL]) test drinks for 21 days with their habitual diet. At the beginning and end of the intervention, blood samples were collected at 0., 30., 60. and 120. minutes following the test day protocol to analyse serum glucose, insulin, ghrelin, obestatin and PYY levels. In addition, dietary intake, hunger, satiety and appetite of participants were compared. For a short-term effects, it was showed that energy intakes during ad libitum lunch were 1394.3±331.4; 1128.5±165.5; 1273.3±264.3 and 1256.4±328.4 kcal respectively after a single-dose of control, prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic drinks (p=0.017). Within 24 hours of consuming the test drinks, the total dietary energy intake was lowest with the prebiotics; followed by probiotics, synbiotics and control drinks, respectively (p=0.002). The effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic test drinks on hunger and satiety scores were similar to the control test drink (p>0.05, for each). For long-term effects, it was showed that dietary energy intake was decreased (-4.8%) by synbiotics whereas it was increased (8.4%) by control drink; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.054). Serum glucose, insulin, PYY, ghrelin and obestatin, and their areas under the curves did not differ between the groups (p>0.05 for each). In terms of anthropometric measurements and hunger-satiety scores, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05 for each). Prebiotics and probiotics may have potentially beneficial effects on dietary energy intake reduction; but further studies with new products are required to understand their effects on hunger, satiety and appetite.