Heidegger'de Özne Problemi
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The “Subject” matter is undoubtedly one of the many questions introduced by modern philosophy because when modern philosophy has established the God of Medieval Ages – human – as the central point of truth and meaning, it has also established human as the new subject. Modern philosophy and subject matter are generally accepted to start with Descartes as he started out with the thinking-self rather than the God when he built up his philosophical view. Therefore, we can conclude that modern philosophy and “subject” argument started with Descartes who put the subject rather than the God into the centre. Kant who maintained the path furnished by Descartes developed a transcendental philosophy and subject concept based on cognition. That subject does not acquire its knowledge from object but rather adapts the object to our way of knowing. Unlike Descartes, Kant’s concept of subject is a subject that both knows and acts. We see the knowing and acting subject as a basic concept of Kant. The post-Kant philosophy also involves a subject matter though it is introduced in a different manner e.g. in Nietzsche’s philosophy in the 19th Century where the existence is explained with the will to power and identification of super-human as the basic perspective of will to power. After declaration of “death of God”, the modern subject is renamed as super-human that gives meaning and value to life itself. The subject concept of these three philosophers mentioned above who determined direction of modern philosophy plays a key role in both explaining and solving the basic problems in philosophy. Heidegger, on the other hand, turns into a problem the concept itself that explains and solves the matter. Therefore, in order to relieve ontology and metaphysics of the metaphysics of subject, he suggests the Dasein concept as the basic concept of philosophy. Dasein becomes a sine qua non concept in order to criticize his predecessors and relieve them of the metaphysics of subject which he accuses them of being involved. Heidegger is critical of Descartes, Kant and Nietzsche in their being seized with the metaphysics of subject which is another form of reduction of the existing and which dims meaning of the being. The subject matter of this study emerges right at that point: In spite of these critics, can we say that Heidegger get out of the conception of subject with Dasein concept? Is Dasein a concept that is another form of a basic concept of a philosophy that has overthrown the philosophy of subject, or is it still a renamed version of subject in spite of all these critics? In this regard, this argument on and through “Dasein” concept will discuss how appropriate the critics of Heidegger and whether there is a subject in his philosophy. This study’s introduction part deals with the meaning of subject problem; first part provides an analysis of emergency of subject in pre-Heidegger era in terms of “subject” concepts of Descartes, Kant, and Nietzsche; second part sets out the Dasein concept and criticism of subject in the light of basic concepts of Heidegger’s philosophy, discussing whether Dasein is a subject. The conclusion part, on the other hand, demonstrates in what terms Dasein is similar to the “modern subject”.