Ergenlerin Sorunlarının ve Algıladıkları Sosyal Desteğin Gelecek Beklentilerine Etkilerinin İncelenmesi: Altındağ Örneği
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The purpose of this study is to examine future expectations of adolescents within the context of their problems, and perceived social support, to make these expectations visible through adolescent experiences from the ecosystem perspective, and to put forward suggestions to support adolescents' future expectations thanks to the in-depth understanding that will be created. In order to present these suggestions, this study has been carried out on the basis of an ecological approach with multilevel systems around the individual and with a holistic view of social work. Accordingly, the adolescent himself/herself, his/her family, friends, school and circle/environment are the systems that have been studied in this research. Within the quantitative dimension of this study, which employed the mixed method, 397 adolescents, who were students in high schools in Ankara's Altındağ district in the school year of 2016-2017, were studied. Future expectations of adolescents, which is the dependent variable of the study, were measured by 'the Adolescent Future Expectation Scale' and the descriptive characteristics and problems of adolescents and the perceived social support, which are independent variables of the study, were measured by a 'Questionnaire' drawn up by the researcher and by 'the Perceived Social Support Scale', respectively. In order to further comprehend the results of the data analysis, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 subjects selected among adolescents, from whom quantitative information was collected, with focus on future expectations. According to the quantitative aspect of the study, job and education lie at the core of future expectations of adolescents. This is followed by expectations of marriage and starting a family. Problems experienced in family and school leads to differences in adolescents' future expectations. In line with this thought, adolescents with family and school related problems have lower future expectations compared to the ones without any problems. As the perceived social support from the family, a friend, and a teacher increases, an adolescent's future expectations improve accordingly. It is an important fact that the family's "poor" economic condition lowers future expectations of an adolescent and all of its sub dimensions. In addition, variables such as difference in the type of school, sex, grade, educational level of parents, and whether the adolescent is working in an income-generating job result in significant differences in terms of an adolescent's future expectations. On the other hand, the future expectations of adolescents that are hopeful for the future are higher while the future expectations of adolescents, who think they have obstacles before their expectations, are lower. Qualitative interviews that are conducted to further clarify the quantitative dimension surfaced some important experiences regarding the adolescents' future expectations. In particular, the economic condition and educational level of families play a major role in adolescents' future expectations. Adolescents usually tackle their individual and family, friends, school and circle related problems based on how they affect their performance in school. School performance serves as a continuation of the adolescents' future expectations and hopes in particular for job and education related expectations. Negative attitude and expectations of families and teachers, adverse friendships, unsafe environment and macro-level experiences in gender inequality have negative meanings for future expectations of adolescents. Within this framework, several suggestions have been put forward to support adolescents' future expectations with regards to individual, family, friends, school, and environment. It is importance to positively contribute to adolescents' future expectations by particularly supporting the family and teachers. What is needed by adolescents are an ecological environment and institutional services to support their expectations rather than emphasizing adverse situations with regards to their future expectations.