Geleneksel Türk Mutfağı Tarifelerinin Üç Farklı Besin Ögesi Örüntü Profili ile Değerlendirilmesi
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Turkish cuisine is accepted as a special cuisine among world cuisines due to its rich variety of recipes, cooking methods, dinner table arrangements and serving styles. Turkish cuisine and the other cuisines in the world have been assessed subjectively using the main principles of healthy nutrition. However, nutrient profiling systems, developed in recent years, enable the objective assessment of a cuisine. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the Turkish cuisine recipes objectively using three different nutrient profiling system, and to compare Turkish cuisine with Mediterranean cuisine which is accepted as a reference cuisine. Nutrient profiling systems used in this study were Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) model developed in the USA, FSA-Ofcom-WXY model developed by Food Standards Agency of the United Kingdom and SAIN-LIM score developed by French Food Standards Agency. A total of 281 recipes from Turkish cuisine and 252 recipes from Mediterrian cousine under 11 different dish groups were assessed. NRF 9.3 model showed that the lowest score in Turkish cuisine belongs to soaps (-10.03) and the highest score belongs to stuffed pepper and vine leaves (3.30), whereas the lowest score belongs to pie and muffin (-1.61) and the highest score belongs to stuffed pepper and vine leaves (3.42) in Mediterranean cuisine. The NRF 9.3 scores of soaps, meat and poultry dishes and rices were significantly varied between the two cuisines (p<0.05 for each). According to FSA-Ofcom-WXY model, 27% of Turkish cuisine recipes and 4.4% of Mediterranean cuisine recipes were defined as healthy. Among the dish groups, the healthy recipe ratio was highest among salads (100%) and legume dishes (85.7%) in Turkish cuisine, while those were salads (23.8%) and egg dishes (16.7%) in Mediterranean cuisine. When the FSA-Ofcom-WXY scores of dish groups in Turkish and Mediterranean cuisine were compared, the FSA-Ofcom-WXY scores of soaps, meat and poultry dishes, fish dishes, pie-muffin-pasties, stuffed pepper and vine leaves and desserts were significantly different between Turkish and Mediterranean cuisines (p<0.05 for each). According to SAIN-LIM model, 50.5% of Turkish recipes were defined as preferable while this ratio was 12.3% in Mediterranean cuisine. SAIN-LIM model assessment showed that the ratio of preferable recipes in Turkish cuisine was high in legume dishes (100%), salads (84.2%), fish dishes (72.7%) and soaps (%68.5) whereas those were salads (28.6%) and soaps (20%) in Mediterranean cuisine. The comparison of total SAINS scores of recipes in Turkish and Mediterranean cuisines showed that fish dishes and desserts had significantly different scores in two cuisines (p<0.05 for each). Consequently, it is determined that the recipes of the traditional Turkish cuisine did not have a rich content when compared using NRF 9.3, however, it was showed that they were as rich as Mediterranean cuisine recipes according to FSA-Ofcom-WXY and SAIN-LIM models. The reason of recipes which are not evaluated as healthy is related to high amount of saturated fat, salt and additional sugar. Re-regulation of recipes in Turkish cuisine based on these food items' contents would make healthier recipes in Turkish cuisine. When the unhealthy Turkish cuisine recipes were evaluated, it was noted that the high saturated fat, salt and added sugar, and low fiber content of recipes caused this finding. A revision of recipes considering the contents of these nutrients makes the Turkish cuisine recipes healthier.