TÜRKİYE’DE YAYILIŞ GÖSTEREN BARBUS (Pisces: Cyprinidae) TÜRLERİNİN COĞRAFİK VARYASYONLARININ ARAŞTIRILMASI THE
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Barbus Cuvier, 1816 genus, member of Cyprinidae family, is made up of middle to large sized fishes. Systematics of the genus is complex. Identification species can be problematic due to recent divergence of Barbus from other genera like Luciobarbus, Carasobarbus, Arabibarbus. Aim of this investigation is to exhibit interspecific and intraspecific variations among Barbus genus by means of morphometric and genetic analyses and to clarify its systematical status. A total of 11 species of the genus was sampled in field studies from various basins, and metric meristic measurements were collected from the specimens. Landmark based morphometric analyses of radiographic images were conducted in addition to traditional morphometric analyses. In order to explain intraspecific relationships of the genus, sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) from 95 specimens of ten species were analyzed with sequences retrieved from GenBank. According to results obtained in this study, it has been found that Barbus tauricus, Crimea endemic originated from Black Sea, member of Ponto-Caspian Clade is not distributed in fresh waters of Anatolia as it had been thought otherwise. Species which are distributed through Eastern and Western Black Sea, Kızılırmak, Yeşilırmak and Çoruh basins should be named Barbus escherichii rather than Barbus tauricus. In the same clade, Barbus ercisianus was found to be within the variation limits of Barbus lacerta and offered as a synonym. On the other hand, validation of Barbus cyri which was offered as a synonymy for B. lacerta in some literature, is shown with morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Polyphyletic Barbus bergi-Barbus oligolepis complex is observed in Ponto-Caspian Clade. These species were distributed in different basins with clear differences by means of morphometry whereas divergence by means of phylogeny is not much clear. According to phylogeny acquired, Barbus prespensis, Barbus rebeli, Barbus euboicus, Barbus peloponnesius, Barbus strumicae, Barbus cyclolepis, Barbus pergamonensis, Barbus niluferensis and Barbus sperchiensis are grouped together within the same clade which is named Aegean Clade. The most interesting result from this clade is paraphyly of B. niluferensis with B. oligolepis which inhabits the same basin. B. oligolepis is found out to be in Ponto-Caspian Clade whereas B. niluferensis and its sister species B. pergamonensis are in Aegean Clade which is dominated by European species. B. pergamonensis also shows some differantiation between basins morphometrically and phylogenetically however extent of this variation is a up to debate. Finally, morphometric evalution of Barbus lorteti is conducted and differences from other species of Barbus are observed. These differences are similar to differences between Luciobarbus and Barbus therefore it is offered to be considered as Luciobarbus lorteti.