THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING ON LANGUAGE LEARNERS’ ATTRIBUTIONS, FUTURE SELF-GUIDES AND MOTIVATED BEHAVIOUR, EFFORT
This dissertation investigates causal attributions of language learners at a university in Turkey for their exam performances. The study has two main phases. The first one includes to what learners attribute their success or failure and the relationship between the perceived success, ideal L2 selves and ought-to selves and the second step scrutinizes the effect of Attribution Retraining (AR) on the promotion of adaptive attributions and dimensions, future self guides and motivated behavior. Additionally, the research includes a process of attribution scale development (LACAS) validated and implemented in detail. The study employed an embedded mixed method design in which the AR effect on all variables was explored through different scales. Also, open-ended questions before and after the treatment, reflection papers, and interviews were administered to the participants in the experimental group. The findings showed that Health and Teacher are the main causal attributions for the language learners. Higher ideal L2 self seems to make a difference between the causal attributions of the learners. Also, Task Difficulty is the main predictor of the previous exam scores and Effort ranks the top predictor for the future exam scores. AR seems to have improved Locus of Control, Personal Control and a decrease in Stability dimensions. It also bolstered adaptive attributions of Effort and Strategy and higher ideal L2 selves of the learners. The study suggests that practitioners and program developers need to embed AR programs into their syllabi to foster learners’ clearer vision and to have them study harder for future performance.