Flipped and Blended Grammar Instruction for B1 Level EFL Classes at Tertiary Education
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This study aimed at developing a new instructional model for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners taking grammar classes; to overcome the complexities and difficulties of understanding language structures and their negative attitudes towards it. Therefore, two randomly selected B1 level proficiency groups were taken as the experimental and control groups in a higher education institution in Turkey. A mixed-method study was conducted for seven weeks in School of Foreign Languages at Başkent University during the spring semester of 2015-2016 academic year and Flipped Grammar Class Model was implemented to 20 students. As a quantitative model, pre-test and post-test true experimental design was utilized. The quantitative data collection tools were the grammar proficiency pre-test and post-test, ICT literacy survey, and Flipped Grammar Class Attitude Questionnaire while the qualitative data was gathered through a semi-structured follow-up interview. Firstly, the grammar proficiency pre-test was applied to both groups and the findings revealed that there is not a statistically significant difference in between. After the treatment, the same test was applied to both groups to determine the difference between and within the groups. For the analysis of the pre-test and posttest results, independent and paired samples t-tests were conducted. The results indicated the students in the experimental group outperformed that of the control group. Also, the frequency analysis of the attitude questionnaire revealed that almost all of the students hold positive attitudes towards the model, which was also verified with the semi-structured interview. According to the findings, the Flipped Grammar Class Model is more effective than traditional lecture-based instruction in improving grammar proficiency. It is believed that Flipped Grammar Class Model can be practiced in EFL and ESL contexts, which may overcome difficulties and complexities of language structures together with the negative attitudes towards learning English grammar.