Öğretim Ortamlarının ve Bilişsel Yetilerin Soyutlama Performansına Etkisi
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Abstraction is one of the building blocks in computer science (CS). Thus, it requires a special emphasis in teaching computer science. Abstraction is described as individuals’ ignorance of details and focusing on the necessary situation. In teaching CS related concepts, puzzle based learning (PBL) approach is proposed since it emphasizes problem solving as a base. Therefore, it was decided to design the learning environment according to PBL principles. As to individual differences, working memory has been within the scope of cognitive differences. In addition, the levels of logical reasoning and abstraction skills that contribute to abstraction have also been examined. The research group consisted of 92 students in seventh grade in a private school. The research was carried out under factorial design. Two different learning environments, called content dependent and content independent, was designed and a tool was used to measure the capacity of students' working memory so that students could be assigned a group before the beginning of the teaching process and the groups were determined accordingly. In addition, logical reasoning test, cypher task performance test and demographic data questionnaire were applied to the students before the application. Each group consisted of 23 students and four groups were formed within the research design. At the end of the learning activity, an achievement test was applied. When the findings were examined it was seen that students’ gender, abstraction skills and the learning environments did not have any effect on students’ learning performances. In addition, the students with higher working memory capacities versus the students with low working memory capacities and the students with higher and medium logical reasoning level versus the students with lower logical reasoning level were found to have significantly higher learning performance. Furthermore, it was found that learners’ logical reasoning levels had predicted the learning performance but learners’ working memory performances had not.