Diyetle Fitokimyasal Alımının Obezite ile İlişkili Parametrelere Etkisi
Turan Demirci, Büşra
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Recently, bioactive phytochemicals present naturally in foods have attracted attention for their potential effects on the prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary phytochemical intake on obesity related parameters using the "Phytochemical Index" (PI) developed for the determination of total dietary phytochemical intake. A total of 300 individuals (138 female, 162 male) aged 18-50 years were included in the study, and stratified into control (BMI: 18.50-24.99 kg/m2) or study (BMI: ≥25.00 kg/m2) groups according to Body Mass Index (BMI) classification. General characteristics, nutrition habits, smoking and alcohol consumptions and physical activity status of participants were recorded. In order to assess the dietary intake and calculate the PI score, 24-hour dietary recall method was used. The dietary PI score was calculated as the percentage of daily dietary energy intake of energy provided from foods rich in phytochemicals. Anthropometric measurements were taken by the investigator, and fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Serum fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin, and serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiponectin, total antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Additionally, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured and the HOMA-IR values were calculated. The mean BMI of female participants were 22.7 kg/m2 in the control group and 28.6 kg/m2 in the study group (p<0.001) and the mean BMI of male participants were 23.4 kg/m2 in the control group and 28.0 kg/m2 in the study group (p<0.001). Dietary PI score was found 24.4±15.31 in the study group, and 23.8±12.4 in the control group in female participants (p=0.786) and 21.9±13.00 in the study group, and 19,1±10,46 in the control group in male participants (p=0,132). Dietary intake of fiber, MUFA (%), carotene, vitamin C, potassium and magnesium were higher in participants with high PI score (p<0.05 for each). Moreover, the consumption of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, olives and olive oil were higher in individuals with high PI score compared to the consumption of individuals with low PI scores (p<0.001 for each). Dietary phytochemical intake showed no significant correlation with any of the anthropometrical measurements in both sexes (p>0.05 for each). While dietary PI score was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in female participants of study group (p<0.05 for each), no correlation between PI score and parameters of lipid profile was obtained in male participants of study group or control group (p>0.05 for each). No correlation between PI score and fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin, fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum adiponectin, serum total antioxidant capacity, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was obtained (p>0.05 for each). The hypothesis that the increase in dietary PI was positively related to anthropometrical measurements and biochemical parameters associated with obesity was not supported in this study. Although increasing dietary phytochemical intake is considered as an appropriate strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity, there are limitations in the assessment of dietary phytochemical intake. Therefore, it is important to develop sensitive, practical and valid tools for the assessment of dietary phytochemical intake. In this respect, further research both for the validation of PIs and development of new tools are required.