Estetik Sporlarla Uğraşan Kadınlarda Kullanılabilir Enerji Düzeyinin Belirlenmesi
ATABEY, Ceren Işıl
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Aim of this study is to determine the energy availability during training season in female aesthetic sports and to examine the prevalance of relative energy deficiency indicators such as low energy availability, low resting metabolic rate, energy deficiency, disordered eating and eating disorders, low bone mineral density, menstrual dysfunction and low body weight. A total of 42 elite female aesthetics athletes (17 aerobic gymnasts, 13 rhytmic gymnasts, 12 figure ice skaters) and 12 non-athlete age controls participated in this study. Age range of the participants were 11-17 years. Resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry, body composition and whole body bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy intake, energy expenditure, energy availabilty and energy deficiency levels were determined based on the data obtained by 3-day food intake and 3-day physical activity records. In addition; Low Energy Availability in Females Questionaire and the Eating Attitude Test-40 were adminestered. Data was analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. Mean energy availability levels were 34.81±18.13, 19.49±13.79, 16.81±17.04 and 43.31±10.49 kcal/kg FFM/day for aerobic gymnasts, rhytmic gymnasts, figure ice skaters and controls, respectively. Prevalance of low energy availability (≤30 kcal/kg FFM/day) for the same groups was determined as 41%, 85%, 83% and 8%, respectively. Clinicaly meaningful energy deficiency (< -500 kcal/day) was determined %98 in all groups. The highest prevalance of chronic low energy availability markers was observed in rhytmic gymnasts (59% of the participants had 3 or more risk factors). In all groups; water, macronutrients and evaluated mineral consumption were lower according to daily reference intake values. In conclusion, female aesthetic sports athletes, evaluated in this study, have high risks in terms of energy availability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the athletes individualy especially during training and competition season and take precautions to ensure that the energy availability is maintaned.