Toplumsal Dayanışma, İşbölümü Ve Dilencilik Olgusu Arasındaki İlişkiler: Almanya Ve Türkiye Karşılaştırması
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Emilé Durkheim suggested that social solidarity models are functional in order to understand the differences in social structure. In this context, he defines two different models: organic and mechanical solidarity. Organic solidarity and the division of labor associated with that model are the characteristics of developed societies where social diversity is prominent and visible. Mechanic solidarity is the quality of less developed societies made up of individuals who are similar to one another. In this axis, in a society dominated by organic solidarity, the position of members is determined by the value, service or utility they produce. However, in a society dominated by mechanical solidarity, individuals are instead considered to be natural members, regardless of the value or service they produce. In this context, the fundamental subject of this study is the way in which beggars are socially located on the axis of those patterns of solidarity suggested by Durkheim. In this context, determining the positions of individuals in this solidarity is the primary objective. To this end, our work aims to compare the behavior of citizens towards beggars in Germany and Turkey. Quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques have been used together for the purpose of this research. According to our findings, Germany which is considered to be a developed country, displays intense organic solidarity patterns towards the beggars. Instead, in Turkey, intense mechanical solidarity patterns have been observed. However, in both countries, it has been found that these two solidarity models are differentiating; especially due to global changes, urbanization and transformation of the welfare-state. It has been determined that forms of behavior and thinking that do not fit either models of solidarity have emerged. In this framework, it is determined that beggars can be viewed as indicators of change and differentiation in social structure.