Türkiye'nin Çeltik Yetiştiriciliği Kaynaklı Sera Gazı Emisyonlarının Değerlendirilmesi
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Climate change is one of the most important problems nowadays affects the existence of living beings. One of the basic factors that cause climate change is greenhouse gas. The accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leads to global warming over time. The greenhouse gases which affect global warming may be listed mainly as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Agricultural production has 10 to 12 percent share in total amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases which emerge directly from agricultural activities are nitrous oxide and methane. Compared to carbon dioxide, it is known that methane has 25 times and nitrous oxide has 298 times more greenhouse effect. Within the scope of agricultural activities, rice cultivation takes its place as the next largest source of methane after enteric fermentation. Besides, nitrous oxide is produced in rice fields by nitrification and denitrification. Rice cultivation is one of the important agricultural activities practiced in the world and in Turkey. In this study, the amounts of methane (CH4) emissions from rice cultivation between 2004 and 2017 were calculated according to TUİK rice statistics for 10 provinces where 94.8% of total amount of rice is harvested in Turkey by using the Tier 1 method which had been proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change (IPCC) in 2006 guide and the effects of applied water regimes during rice cultivation on the amount of methane (CH4) emissions were specified. Total annual emissions from rice cultivation in Turkey were calculated as 167 kilotons of CO2 equivalent in 2017, and 137 kilotons of CO2 equivalent in 2007. Based on the evaluations in 10 provinces where 94.8% of total amount of rice is harvested in Turkey, these values show that the total amount of the CH4 emissions from rice cultivation is increased by 21.4% in ten years. The province with the most methane emissions from rice cultivation was identified to be Edirne with 73.5 kilotons of CO2 equivalent a year. This amount equals to 44.01% of the total emissions. Edirne is followed by Samsun, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, and Çorum. Among 10 provinces evaluated, the province with the lowest amount of emission was Tekirdağ. The effects of different water regimes practiced in rice cultivation on the amount of the methane (CH4) emissions from rice cultivation in Turkey have also been estimated in the study. As a result of the calculations, it has been predicted that the intermittently flooded water regime with multiple aerations had the potential of decreasing CH4 emissions by 13.4% compared to the flooded regime with single aeration and 48% compared to the continuously flooded water regime. Among the practices before rice cultivation period, it has also been calculated that the water regime which was non-flooded pre-season>180 days had the potential of decreasing CH4 emissions by 32% compared to the one which was non-flooded pre-season<180 days and 64.2% compared to the one which was flooded pre-season. In compliance with these results, it has been predicted that the lowest amount of CH4 emissions was observed when the fields are intermittently flooded with multiple aerations during rice cultivation period and non-flooded pre-season>180 days before the cultivation period. It has been calculated that approximately 1063.86 kilotons of annual CO2 equivalent emissions emerged in 10 provinces where total amount of N2O emitted directly and indirectly from rice cultivation in 2017. In conclusion, evaluations in 10 provinces where 94.8% of total amount of rice is harvested in Turkey show that the amount of total annual greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation was calculated to be 1230.86 kilotons of CO2 equivalent in 2017. Edirne has been determined as the province where the most amount of annual emissions from rice cultivation had emerged with 562.2 kilotons of CO2 equivalent. It seems possible to decrease greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation to lower levels by applications such as practicing zero-tillage farming, using fermented and nitrification-preventive or slow-release fertilizers, and choosing the type of rice besides water regime methods.