Kuzey İskandinavyalı İnsan Örneklerinde Hesaplamalı Antik Dna Çalışmaları
Alioğlu, Nursen Duha
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In the last 30 years, DNA has been obtained from the remains of ancient organiams, and this ancient DNA has been used in many genetic, cultural and demographic history studies. Thanks to these studies, we now understand how humankind left the Africa, begin to travel around the world and starting from primitive nomad hunter-gatherer tribes how they create many advanced cultures. In other words, we start to understand human history. Also, because of aDNA studies, we are able to make comments on the detailed history of animals and plants, especially those that people and humans have interacted through taming and breeding throughout history. Until now, many studies have examined in detail the process of Neolithisation (transition from hunter-gathering to resident agriculture). It is known that this process take plece at different times in different geographical regions. 10,000 years ago, Neolithisation started in a region called "fertile crescent" and it spread to Anatolia. However, in that time period (after 11,000 BC.), some parts of Scandinavia was still covered by ice and human expansion was newly started the regions where were suitable. The late settlement of people to Scandinavia, led to the ages starting later in this era than Europe. The first settling human populations in Scandinavia, followed different migratory roots and they were European Mesolithic cultures. The migration of these populations to Scandinavia and the creation of new cultures have long been the subject of researchs. Throughout history, in Scandinavia, apart from the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish populations, there has also been a different culture called Saami, who are reindeer husbandries. Although Saami populations are ancient European populations, the studies which used mitochondria and Y chromosome showed that Saami populations are genetically differentiated from contemporary European populations. This points out the small population size and inbreeding history of Saami populations. In this study, the relationship between modern Scandinavian populations and 34 different ancient individuals from six different Northern Scandinavian medieval ancient settlements, including excavations in the residential settlements of ancient Saami settlements, was examined. Comperative analyzes were carried out with the principal components, D-statistic and ADMIXTURE analyzes, and no significant differences were found between northern ancient samples. Moreover, there is no close genetic relation detected between ancient Saami site indivuals and modern Saami populations. This study is one of the first demographic history analysis studies using the whole genome from the medieval ancient samples (BC. 400 – AC. 1,300).