REİSHİ MANTARI EKSTRAKTININ KÖFTEDE HETEROSİKLİK AROMATİK AMİNLERİN OLUŞUMU ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ
Guzel, B., Effect of Reishi Mushroom Extract on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Patties, Hacettepe University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Master of Sciences Thesis in Food Service Systems Programme, Ankara, 2019. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds found in cooked muscle meats formed by Maillard reaction of creatinine, creatinine, amino acids and sugars. Epidemiological studies have shown that high exposure to HAAs may increase cancer risk in humans. Studies have shown that antioxidants have inhibitory properties on HAA formation. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effect of reishi mushroom extract on HAA formation. Different concentrations (0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%) of the reishi mushroom extract were added to the patties by different methods (spreading on the surface or mixing) and the effect of reducing the HAA formation by deep frying at two different cooking temperatures (150˚C and 190˚C) were investigated. In cooked patties, a total of 11 HAA analyzes were performed including 2-amino-1-methylimidazo [4,5-f] -quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f] -quinoxaline (IQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f-quinolin] (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxalin (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] -pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5-f] -quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeiqx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo [4, 5-f]-quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido [4,3-b]-indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-9H-prido [ 2,3-b] indole (AαC), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido [2,3-b] indole (MeαC) and 9H-prido [3,4-b] indole (Norharman). It was determined that the total amount of HAA found in the beef patty samples was below the detectable limit of 2.92 ng/g. Reishi mushroom extract, added at a concentration of 25%, 50% and 1% by spreading on the surface method was found to inhibit total HAA formation by 54.26-100%.