Teknolojik Gelişmelerin Etkisi ile Yüzeylerde Malzeme Kullanımı: Akıllı Malzemeler
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The relationship between architectural and interior design and materials can be interpreted as simple until the Industrial Revolution.Until this period, the building materials were generally selected from local sources, pragmatically in terms of utilization and suitability, and / or formally considered in terms of their appearance and decorative qualities.For example, locally available stone formed foundations and walls, and marbles were often used as thin coatings covering the rough structure. Decisions related to architecture determined the choice of materials. Therefore,at the beginning of 19th century it can be thought that the utilization material in the design is dependent on function and form.However, due to the lack of standard materials in this period, the designers had to base their characteristics and performance on an external understanding. In essence, material knowledge was obtained through experience and observation. These knowledge and skills, which are necessary to work with existing materials, are mostly acquired through trial and error. With the emergence of the Industrial Revolution, the role of materials has changed dramatically. Rather than relying on an intuitive and empirical understanding of material properties and performance, designers have come up with engineered engineering materials.As a matter of fact, the history of modern architecture can be traced from the lens of the “history of building materials”.Starting with the widespread recognition of steel in the 19th century, materials that led to the emergence of large-span and multi-storey building forms moved from the roles of the pre-modern era to the architectural needs, to functionally improve performance and to become a tool for new formal responses.The industrialization of glass production allowed for a transparent architecture to take place in any climate and in any context, along with developments in the environmental system. The widespread use of curtain wall systems freed the facade material from utilitarian functions and made the facade a formal element. Thanks to advances in technologies, engineering materials such as aluminum and titanium have now become available in an efficient and easy manner, allowing for a variety of designs as building coatings. The materials have emerged on both the internal and external representation of the building, the most directly visible, and thus the most appropriate representation. As a result, today's architects and interior designers can think of materials as part of the design palette and from this palette, the materials can be selected and applied as composition and functional surfaces.Based on this way of thinking, the use of intelligent materials can be approached. For many centuries it has been designed to accept the properties of a standard material such as wood or stone and to meet the limitations of the material. With the technological advancements, the characteristics of a high performance building material can be selected or arranged to meet a specifically defined need. In addition, smart materials can meet the requirements of design by responding to the temporary needs by reversing their properties.The ability to respond to multiple situations instead of being optimized for a single situation makes the smart materials attractive to the design palette, given the situation in which structures and spaces face changing conditions. As a result, many suggestions have started to emerge as to how smart materials can start to replace more traditional building materials. Cost and availability, in general, are limited by the introduction of 'new' materials in the architecture, the use of certain parts worthy of initial demonstration (thermochromic chair ridges, industrial design, etc.), although in general they restrict the widespread use of smart materials to replace traditional materials. With the recent developments, many architects and interior designers can imagine covering the surfaces of the place with smart materials. Materials and technology for terms such as interaction and convertibility have become the standard terms of the architectural dictionary, even if they are beyond the economic and practical reality of most design projects. Designers try to integrate smart materials into their standard applications with traditional building materials conceptually. Smart materials, however, represent a radical distinction from standard construction materials. While the standard building materials are static in design to withstand the structural loads (forces), the smart materials are dynamic by responding to the energy fields. This is an important distinction since our normal representation tools in space design make static material privileged. Besides, it is necessary to focus on how to look and what to do when designing with an intelligent material. In understanding smart materials, just before understanding the properties of materials, the designer must also be familiar with the basic physics and chemistry of their interaction with the environment around the material. Within the framework of the thesis prepared within the framework; In the first chapter, standard and common building materials used in the surfaces of walls, floors, ceiling components in the space design were examined. In the contemporary design, the properties of the material are examined and the new material types are determined. In the second chapter, the smart materials group from new materials were discussed and their types and properties were investigated. In the third part, the use of smart materials as a product and/or systems on building surfaces in the previous section is explained with sample projects. In the conclusion section, in the light of the information obtained, smart material products and systems which can be used as a suggestion to the standard building materials on the surfaces are analyzed by table and evaluation of the subject is presented.