Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Modern Müziğin Doğuşu: Musika-ı Hümayun
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Janissary Band, playing military music for centuries, was abolished in 1826 and instead, the Musika-ı Hümayun was founded. Talented students were chosen from Enderun for the Musika-i Hümayun. Initially Vaybelim Ahmed Ağa and Trampeter Ahmed directed the band. But their knowledge was inadeqate for educating the students in a contemporary musical fashion. To this end French Monsieur Manguel was chosen as the new conductor. Manguel, who remained in this position for two years, did not fullfil the expectations. Thereupon a new music instructor was thought to be brought from Italy and the ambassador of the kingdom of Sardinia to Istanbul was consulted. The government of Sardinia sent Giuseppe Donizetti and he was accepted under the title of “The chief educator of the band of the Ottoman Empire”. Giuseppe Donizetti was born in the town of Bergamo in Lombardia in 1788. During his military career, he joined the military band and worked as a band chief for years in the Italian and the French armies. He was given great authority when he came to Istanbul. As his first job, Donizetti taught to his students western note system. New musicial instruments was bought from Italy by Donizetti Pasha. He tried to transfer foreing teachers for each western insruments. He wrote the Mahmudiye anthem for Sultan Mahmud and it became the national anthem of the Ottoman state, from 1828 to 1856. He was the true founder of the Musika-ı Humayun with his twenty-eight years of work. Guatelli and D'aranda Pashas worked as a band chief after Donizetti Pasha. By the Union and Progress Party took the government, Turk conducters were prefered in Musika-ı Hümayun. Their contributions provided a solid base for the development of modern musical system in the republican era.