ANNE SÜTÜNÜN VE YENİDOĞANIN İNTESTİNAL MİKROBİYOTASININ MATERNAL BESLENME İLE İLİŞKİSİ
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Ede, G., The Relationship Between Maternal Nutrition and Microbiota of Human Breast Milk and Newborn's Intestine, Hacettepe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Ankara, 2019. Breast milk is an optimal source of nutrients for newborns as well as a potential source of bacteria for the intestinal microbiota. However, there are limited number of studies evaluating the relationship between maternal nutrition, breast milk and neonatal intestinal microbiota. Therefore, this study was planned to determine the possible relationship between maternal nutrition and breast milk as well as neonatal gut microbiota composition. The study was conducted on a total of 20 healthy mother-infant pairs following at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Gülhane Education and Research Hospital in Ankara Health Sciences University. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, nutritional habits, status, breastfeeding characteristics and anthropometric measurements of infants were evaluated in the third trimester of the women who underwent routine prenatal care. Fecal samples were obtained during pregnancy, whereas breast milk samples and stool samples of newborns were obtained during lactation. The microbiota composition of the biological samples was determined by 16S rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) gene sequencing analysis. The mean age of women was 24.2±2.94 years, the mean prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) was 23.3±2.08 kg/m2 and was 25.4±2.32 kg/m2 during the lactation. Firmicutes (50.2%) and Bacteroidetes (24.2%) were found in the intestinal microbiota of women during pregnancy and Firmicutes (72.8% and 61.9%, respectively) and Proteobacteria (24.1%, respectively) in breast milk and newborn microbiota and (16.1%). Carbohydrate (r= -0.459), polyunsaturated fatty acids (r= - 0.524), n-3 fatty acid (r= -0.448) and Bacteroidaceae (r = -0.448) family during pregnancy, with protein intake Clostridiaceae (r= -0.475) and Enterobacteriaceae (r= -0.446) negative correlation was determined between the family. A moderately negative correlation was found between the Sutterellaceae family and riboflavin intake (r = -0.632) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.538). There was a good (r= 0.577) and moderate (r = 0.474) positive correlation between daily energy, fiber intake and Streptococcaceae family in breast milk, respectively. There was a good (r= -0.650) negative and moderate (r= 0.517) positive correlation between vitamin B6 intake and Yersiniaceae and iron intake and Streptococcaceae families, respectively. Moderate negative correlation (r= -0.549) was found between Bifidobacteriaceae family and daily fiber intake in neonatal intestinal microbiota. There was a good negative correlation (r = -0.653) between Veillonellaceae family and calcium intake. In this study, a correlation was found between maternal energy and nutrient intake, breast milk and neonatal intestinal microbiota during both pregnancy and lactation. For the validity of these results, studies including controlled nutrition interventions are needed. Key Words: Breast milk, infant, microbiota, maternal nutrition This study was supported by a Scientific Research Support Scholarship by the Society of Clinical Enteral Parenteral Nutrition.