XII. Yüzyıl Moğolistan Coğrafyasındaki Konar-Göçerlerin İçtimai Yapısı
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In this study, the social structure of nations in Mongolian geography in Twelfth Century has been re-examined. According to the Marxist Theory of History and the Theory of Social Evolution, which has influenced the studies of 12th century social structure of the Mongols for many years, the social structure of each nomadic society is as follows: “Gens (a consanguineous group) - Fratri (consisting of several gens) - Tribe (consists of several Fratries) - Tribal federation (consisting of several tribes) were established. That is, kinship (tribal) order based on blood bond. This study has been prepared in order to evaluate whether this view is true or false, and if it is wrong, to give an opinion on the social structure of the nomadic tribes in the 12th Century of the Mongolian habitat. The social structure of the nomads in the 12th Century Mongolian habitat, public order, administrative division, kinship order, battue hunting order and animal husbandry order were examined under four chapters and twelve subheadings. The main results of this study are as follows: 1. In the 12th century Mongols’ the state administrative division was redesigned. The nation is divided into two major administrative branches. The branches are divided into “güre’en”s. The Khan or the Ruler administers the left arm (wing), and the right arm (wing) is administered by the manager assigned by the Khan whose title is taizi. Each “güre-en” that forms an arm (wing) is dominated by a governor (bey). They were migrating together and settling in a new place, creating many neighboring “güre-en”s. 2. Starting from V. Y. Vladimirtsov, many scientists have asserted the opinion for a long time that the Mongolian concept oboq is the main unit of the Mongolian state administrative division in the 12th Century, but it has recently been understood that it is not true. However, in Mongolian the basic concepts such as oboq, uruq and yasun have been re-examined and the kinship order of the 12th Century Mongols has been revealed. Thus, we have proved that the state administrative division consisting of branches, “güre-en”s in the nations of Mongolian habitat and the kinship order consisting of various concepts including oboq, yasun and uruq existed in the same time in the 12th Century. 3. We have also talked about the nomadic animal husbandry order and the “hunting” order in the 12th Century Mongolian habitat. Since there was a special fattening system in the animal husbandry order, which was closely tied to the social structure at that time, we re-examined the animal husbandry order in that period. As a result, we have finally proved that three different fattening orders existed together in the same time such as nomadic fattening such as family (ayil) method, animal husbandry in the form of oba (hot ayil order) and livestock breeding of the chiefs.