Textual Analysis Of Argumentative Essays According To Toulmin Model, Position Of Claims, Evidence Types And Coherence
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This qualitative study analyzed 47 L2 English argumentative essays written by Turkish students enrolled in the Department of English Language Teaching at Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey; in terms of the Toulmin's model of argument structure, the position of main and sub claims, the evidence types used, coherence, possible reasons that break coherence and fallacies. The results showed that participants use data and claim as the most dominant Toulmin model elements, and they use much fewer counterargument claims, counterargument data, rebuttal claims and rebuttal data. The results also showed that most participants in the study had a deductive pattern in their essays, with the main claim and sub claims in the initial position. Moreover, the evidence type that is mostly used was revealed to be logical evidence. Incoherence was found to be low and mostly at micro (paragraph) level. The major reasons behind this incoherence were found to be mentioning something totally irrelevant and wrong word choice. Finally, the fallacy that is done most was found to be amphibology. The results indicate the need for a thorough instruction on Toulmin model, evidence types and incoherence reasons for ELT students.