Suriye ve Filistin'de Rus Mevcudiyeti ve Osmanlı Siyaseti
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This thesis tracks the religious, political, social and cultural presence and activities of the Russian Empire in Syria and Palestine and the policies of the Ottoman Empire against these. In the first part of the thesis, the characteristics of the relations of the Russians with Syria and Palestine after the adoption of Christianity, the place of Syria and Palestine in the 18th century Ottoman-Russian diplomatic texts, the first Russian Consulates in the region and the establishment of Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem in 1847 are examined. In the second part, land purchases for Russian pilgrims in Jerusalem as a result of the activities of the Palestine Committee established under the Ministry of Russian Foreign Affairs, the construction of churches and guest houses, the procurement of land across Palestine under the administration of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, competition between the Russian authorities in Jerusalem and Russian support of Orthodox Arabs against the governing Greek clergy of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem are analyzed. In the third part of the thesis, the establishment and administrative structure of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society founded in 1882 as a result of the restructuring of Russian politics towards Syria and Palestine, the patronage of Russian Oriental studies towards Syria and Palestine, the management of travels of Russian pilgrims and their social and economic structure are evaluated. In the fourth chapter, the election of the first Arab Patriarch to the throne of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch in 1899 as a result of Russian support of Orthodox Arabs against the Greek clergy, the initiation and development of Russian educational activities in Syria and Palestine, and the ideological structure of these activities are examined. Accordingly, the process of transferring the schools of Patriarchate of Antioch to the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in 1895, the attitude of the Ottoman State towards the Russian schools, and the recognition of the entire Russian presence including Russian schools by the Ottoman State in 1902 and 1905 are analyzed. The structure of Russian activities after 1905, as a turning point both for domestic subjects and foreign policy for Russia and the end of Russian presence in Syria and Palestine in 1914 with the entry of Russia into World War I in the enemy front of the Ottoman Empire and the effect of the graduates of the schools of Palestine Society on the “Orthodox Arab Renaissance” are emphasized.