Kemik Çimentolarında Yumurta Kabuğu Zarı Proteininin Kullanımı
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Within the scope of the presented thesis, it is thought that protein doped bone cements promise potential in terms of biodegradability and strength. Therefore, by adding protein to calcium sulphate based bone cements (CSC), it is aimed to change the mechanical strength of the cement and to provide phase transformations in CSCs. The eggshell membrane (ESM) obtained from the eggshell, which is produced as millions of tons of waste each year, has been selected as a natural biomaterial that can be used with CSCs with its high protein content. 62.57% yield of eggshell membrane protein (ESMP) was obtained from ESM which was separated from eggshell, calcium sulphate (CaS) based bone cement was synthesized and two different CaS phases were obtained as calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH). The contribution of CSD and CSH phases to mechanical strength, morphology and structure was investigated by using ESMP. The hardening solutions were prepared by adding different additives to the obtained ESMP, water and CaCl2 aqueous solution and ESMP solubility studies were performed. ESMP-Water, ESMP-Urea, ESMP-CaCl2 (aq), filtered ESMP-CaCl2 (aq), ESMP-CaCl2 (aq) -urea and filtered ESMP-CaCl2 (aq) and urea mixtures with the best dissolution results in prepared hardening solutions has been reached with. In the CaS synthesis part, CaS powder (PPTN1, PPTN2 and PPTN3) was produced in different phases. The obtained PPTN1, PPTN2 and PPTN3 powders were determined to contain CSH, CSD and CSD phases, respectively. Addition of ESMP in CaCl2 aqueous solution to PPTN1 powder containing CSH phase was found to cause 45% greater mechanical strength than water or water and ESMP alone. When the PPTN1 powder, which was determined to contain CSH phase, was mixed with water, there was no change in CSH phase, there was little CSD phase in the structure when mixed with water / ESMP, and when it was mixed with ESMP / CaCl2 hardening solution, the CSH phase structure was completely transformed into CSD phase structure. Addition of ESMP to PPTN3 powder containing CSD phase resulted in approximately 240% greater mechanical strength than water, water / ESMP / EtOH and water / ESMP / Urea. It was observed that the CSD phase did not change when it was mixed with PPTN3 powder containing CSD phase with water, water / ESMP, water / ESMP / EtOH and water / ESMP / urea. It was observed that CaCl2 aqueous solution had no effect on the mechanical strength of PPTN3 powder containing CSD phase and when it was mixed with CaCl2 / ESMP it increased the mechanical strength of CSD phase by 300%. When the PPTN3 powder containing CSD phase and CaCl2 (aq), ESMP / CaCl2 and ESMP/CaCl2/urea hardening solutions were mixed, it was observed that CSD phase did not change. In the studies, it was recorded that the mechanical strength of the cements which started with CSH phase and mixed with ESMP and CaCl2 increased to CSD phase. It is seen that when the solubility of the added protein is increased without the phase transformation of CSD phase which has low mechanical strength, it reacts with a +2 charged ion valued material such as CaCl2, and its mechanical strength increases and it is possible to use the generated CaS based bone cement system as bone cement in bone tissue repair.