Kozmetik Endüstrisinde Kullanılan Bazı Polimerlerin Nano Ölçekli Yapı Özellik İlişkilerinin Araştırılması
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In this thesis, three types of liquid foundation / cream (QW, LF and BB cream coded samples) and four types (have different properties of fixative / styling) hair spray which are used frequently in our daily lives and include polymeric cosmetic products, are focused on. Firstly, five different polymers commonly used in cosmetic products were identified, and studies were initiated with polymethylsilsesquioxane, polyphenylsilsesquioxane, phenyltrimethicone, C 26-28 alkyl dimethicone, and silicone elastomer resin gel, which could lead to (volumetric) nanoscale formations. Before the use of pure polymers in cosmetic products, the morphology (configurations), dimensional information (radius of gyration and maximum magnitudes) and distance distribution functions of the nano formations present in the structure forms were obtained and ab-initio structure models of 3D nanostructures were performed. Among the investigated polymers, polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ), which has the closest shape to the spherical, was selected for using in detailed studies on nanoscale structure-property investigations. In order to examine the effect of this polymer on the structural properties of cosmetic creams, 0,4; 0,7 and 1,2 mg PMSQ was added (with % 0,12; 0,20 ve 0,35 mass percentage) to two different foundation and BB cream to perform different polymer amounts. Another reason why PMSQ is preferred over other polymers is that in cosmetic materials in gel / cream form, the amount of this polymer can be easily dissolved by dissolving it in the existing structure without disturbing the macroscopic appearance and homogeneous structure. SAXS - WAXS (Small - Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering) analyzes of the samples prepared by increasing the amount of polymer and without increasing as control group were applied in thin film form both on the substrates which do not form X-Ray scattering pattern and on the skin material were made. Structural investigations were performed using the obtained SAXS (~ 1-100 nm scale) and WAXS (~ 1-3 Å scale) data. SEM measurements of these samples were also carried out to observe the structural changes caused by the increase in polymer doping on a microscopic scale. Samples in film form prepared using LF coded foundation and BB cream which gave the best response to increase in polymer dopped were allowed to aged for 1 to 4 weeks and SAXS analyses of samples were performed at Taiwan National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). Obtained by SAXS analysis, nano formation from the distribution functions of the homogeneous distribution in the long range in the three - dimensional structure is an important index, compared to the short range from distribution functions derived from the SEM images, as it contained more accurate and realistic results are presented semi-empirical analysis. In this analysis, LF-coded materials, which provide the shape, size and uniform distribution information suitable for the nanocomposite form of 3D nano morphologies, were the most suitable for polymer increase. In the following analyzes, by focusing on this sample, antibacterial analysis and UV absorbing effects were started to examine the effects of the increase in the doping of polymer under the control of the structures on the structure-property. As a result, it was found that the antibacterial properties of LF coded foundation in film form could be improved by increasing PMSQ polymer doping. It was determined that biofilm formation can be prevented by increasing polymer doping for E.coli and S.aureus bacteria. In addition, UV optical transmittance and reflectance measurements were made for this group and it was concluded that the UV reflectivity of cosmetic material obtained by adding 0,4 mg PMSQ was increased by ~ 15 % and the UV transmittance property could be reduced to ~ 40 %. FT-IR analyzes of the same sample group were also carried out and the increase in PMSQ concentraston and the changes in the structures in the molecular scale were examined. As the second group of cosmetics, four hair sprays with different properties were studied. These sprays were applied to hair samples of 25-35 years old female donors in different forms (straight yellow, straight auburn, straight black and curly brown) and structural analyzes were started with SAXS method. FT-IR analyzes were also performed to examine the molecular structure differences of the “straight yellow” and “straight auburn” hair samples whose nanostructural morphologies were closest to the spherical. Microscopic analyzes were completed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EDXS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) methods. The most important finding for this group can be summarized as follows. Although the chemical components used in hair sprays do not cause a major change in the molecular structure of the hair while performing their functions, they can lead to major changes in the nanoscopic structure (especially melanin structure). This finding is an indication of the necessity of using nanoscopic analyzes in the cosmetic industry. As determined for the first time in this thesis, 3D ab-initio structure models obtained by SAXS analysis can be used easily to monitor melanin structure. In this study, for the first time, 3D modeling of melanin (nanoglobular) forms present in the structure of the hair can be made by SAXS method. It was also determined that the polymers used in hair sprays directly affect the spray properties. With the combination of polymers and other macromolecular structures commonly used in cosmetic products, self-assembled clusters (nano-formations) on the nano scale can produce very different results in structure-property relationships. In other words, it would be appropriate to carry out serious structure controls at the nano scale in the cosmetic industry. According to this study, it was found that even small changes in the usage of polymer amounts caused nanoscopic structure differences and these nano-scale structural differences were also effective in biophysical properties such as improving antimicrobial properties and increasing UV protective shield effect. In summary, as a result of this thesis, the necessity of both determining the use of polymer materials in the cosmetic industry at optimum ratio and examining the structure-property relationships from molecular to nano, micro and macro dimensions seriously have been explained.