Analysis of The 'Cappadocian Cave House' in Turkey As The Historical Aspect of The Usage Of Nature As A Basis of Design
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The Cappadocia region is located in the Anatolian part of Turkey surrounded by ancient civilisations where nature and history came together in good sequence. While geographic events had formed 'Fairy Chimneys' (Peribacalari), during the historical period, the signs of old civilisations of thousands of years can be seen with carved houses and churches within these earth pillars. Traditional Cappadocian houses carved into stone show the uniqueness of the region. These houses are constructed on the feet of the mountain via rocks or cut stones. Rocks, which are the only construction materials of the region, as they are very soft after quarrying due to the structure of the region can be easily processed but after contact with air it may harden and turn into a very strong constructional material. Cappadocia is also known for its rock hewn churches, monasteries and underground cities. The cave houses are old residences carved centuries ago. They overlook a vast area surrounded by mountains. Restoration sometimes makes it possible to clean the rock oxidised or blackened by smoke and to clear certain parts, filled with soil over the centuries. The structure was also consolidated and certain vaults were rebuilt by original stones. The restoration continues, attempting to respect the original construction. The purpose of this study is to analyse the historical aspect of design with the basis of nature among cave house formation, with the usage in today's conditions. The results of this study show the advantages and the disadvantages of the architectural space formed by cave structures while the conclusion is the criteria reached by the character of the residences based on natural formation.