Gyrase Mutations In Laboratory-Selected, Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutants Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37Ra
Hackbarth, C. J.
Rosenberg, E. Y.
Chambers, H. F.
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To characterize mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mutants of strain H37Ra were selected in vitro with ofloxacin. Their quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and gyrB were amplified and sequenced to identify mutations in gyrase A or B, Three types of mutants were obtained: (i) one mutant (TKp1) had no mutations in gyrA or gyrB; (ii) mutants that had single missense mutations in gyrA, and (iii) mutants that had two missense mutations resulting in either two altered gyrase A residues or an altered residue in both gyrases A and B, The TKp1 mutant had slightly reduced levels of uptake of [C-14]norfloxacin, which was associated with two- to fourfold increases in the MICs of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin. Gyrase mutations caused a much greater increase in the MICs of fluoroquinolones, For mutants with single gyrA mutations, the increases in the MICs were 4 to 16-fold, and for mutants with double gyrase mutations, the MICs were increased 32-fold or more compared with those for the parent. A gyrA mutation in TKp1 secondary mutants was associated with 32- to 128-fold increases in the MICs of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin compared with the MICs for H37Ra and an eight-fold increase in the MIC of sparfloxacin. Sparfloxacin was the most active fluoroquinolone tested, No sparfloxacin-resistant single-step mutants were selected at concentrations of >2.5 mu g/ml, and high-level resistance (i.e., MIC, greater than or equal to 5 mu g/ml) was associated with two gyrase mutations. Mutations in gyrB and possibly altered levels of intracellular accumulation of drug are two additional mechanisms that may be used by M. tuberculosis in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance, Because sparfloxacin is more active in vitro and selection of resistance appears to be less likely to occur, it may have important advantages over ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin for the treatment of tuberculosis.