Çevre ve Uluslararası Ticaret İlişkisi: Tüketim Kaynaklı Sınıraşan Kirlilik ve Asimetrik Kirlilik Algısı
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Economists engaged the relationship between the environment and trade in the early 1970s. As a result of increased trade volume, and environmental problems and sustainability concerns, the environment and trade nexus has become the focal point of a vast amount of researches. The first examples of the theoretical literature on this issue are the studies using trade models which depend on perfect competition and constant returns to scale. As a result of the emerging new trade theory models focusing on increasing returns to scale and imperfect competition, recent studies use more often these type of models in scrutinizing the environment and trade relationship. This relationship has been studied in various forms in the empirical literature. The empirical studies seeking for evidence for the complex structure of the environment-trade relationship can be considered under three hypotheses, namely, Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis, Pollution Haven Hypothesis and Porter Hypothesis.