Hegel'de Yoksulluk Sorunu
Akay Atasoy, Seda
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In the Elements of the Philosophy of Right, Hegel examines the dialectical process of the objective spirit stage, in which free will manifests itself as an object in the development of consciousness, within the unity of abstract right, morality and ethical life stages. Hegel, on the other hand, examines the unity of ethical life stage within the family, civil society, and state stages. He considers the problem of poverty as a problem specific to civil society in the transition to the state stage, where the integrity of the ethical life is completed, and civil society is sublated. He emphasizes that poverty transforms into a radical problem through the mass of poor people called rabble who have lost the honor of living with their own labor, their respect for the law, and their self-confidence. Even though Hegel proposes solutions to the problem of poverty such as redistribution of wealth, colonization, begging, civil society's aid to the poor, corporations, and police; he admits that these suggestions will work to a certain extent. On the other hand, Marx approaches the problem of poverty with a focus on alienation and sees the solution in overcoming alienation and eliminating the structure of class-based society with the proletarian movement. In this context, Avineri and Ruda criticize Hegel for leaving the problem unsolved despite identifying the problem, and they come up with suggestions in line with Marx's proposed solution. Plant, nevertheless, emphasizes the state intervention regarding the solution of the problem of poverty and puts forward a welfare state-oriented proposal. Those who argue that the solution of the problem is possible in Hegel's system bring forward corporation-based solution proposals. This dissertation aims to propose a possible corporation-based and immanent solution to the problem of poverty within Hegel's system of thought by taking into account the conditions of Hegel’s era. In this framework, the solution is foreseen to take place gradually at the civil society stage and under the control of the state, whereas direct state intervention or full welfare state formation is avoided. The individual is partially protected by economic factors such as minimum wage and universal income support, and it is essentially aimed to prevent his transformation into a rabble by ensuring that he remains in the labor market and feels cared. Reforming corporations as well as the education system remains at the core of the proposed solution. The solution offered in this dissertation differs from other corporation-based solution proposals in the literature, since it builds a hybrid model that includes elements from different approaches.