PISA 2018 Okuma Becerileri Testinin Ülkelere ve Cinsiyete Göre Ölçme Değişmezliğinin İncelenmesi
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The aim of study is to examine measurement invariance of PISA 2018 reading literacy test across different countries (Turkey, Singapore and the USA) and in terms of gender variable. The research was conducted on 24 items in 5 units. Structural invariance was ensured for five units, whereas metric invariance wasn’t ensured for one unit. For this unit, it can be interpreted that item factor groups are equally distributed, but factor loadings, variances, covariances and error variances may differ. Two units ensured the scale invariance, while the two failed in metric invariance. For units ensured metric invariance, it can be interpreted that item and factor groups, as well as item factor loads, were similarly obtained according to groups. In units with scale invariance; it can be reported that item and factor groups, item factor loadings and item constants were similar between groups. Ensuring scale invariance shows that observed variable mean of groups are comparable. According to fit-index obtained by gender; stages of structural, metric and measurement invariance were ensured for units. It was observed three units ensured the stage of rigid invariance, two units failed at the stage of scale invariance. It can be interpreted that observed averages of three units between gender groups are comparable and that possible differences reveal gender differences. As two units ensured stage of scale invariance, it can be reported that there is no bias according to items in these units and differences obtained from observed variables are due to the mean differences of implicit variables.