Stoa Felsefesinde Phantasıa’nın Epistemolojik Rolü
Çiçek, Buse Burcu
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This study aims, in the Stoics who look for an answer to the question of the possibility of knowledge which is one of the epistemological problems and held that the true knowledge is possible, to discuss and to reveal epistemological status of the concept of phantasia around which the criterion of truth is formed. The study will proceed bidirectional. For a better understanding of phantasia in Stoicism, it will be analyzed, on the one hand, the concept of phantasia and to what kind of meaning changes it been exposed until the Stoics in history of philosophy, on the other, it will tried to explained its epistemological role in acquiring knowledge. For this reason, in the first chapter, it will be mentioned what phantasia and its epistemological function is, in Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus, who used already this notion in epistemological context before the Stoics. In the second chapter, since the Stoic epistemology takes his form around the early Stoics (Zeno, Cleanthes and Chrysippus), to their views on phantasia katalêptikê and to their different definitions of phantasia will be referenced. In this context, the notions of phantastikon, phantaston, phantasma, phantasia katalêptikê and phantasia akatalêpton etc. will be clarified, because of the relation between logic and epistemology, first and foremost Stoic logic will be displayed. An explanation of the Stoic theory of the soul due to its part in the knowledge process and immediately after, the interrelation Stoic moral psychology and epistemology will be given. In the third chapter, it will be mentioned Sceptics’ criticisms directed toward to the Stoic’s criterion of the truth about the possibility of knowledge and as a result of these objections, the changes made by the Stoics will be discussed. The study will put an end by discussing whether the Stoics could give convincing answers to the criticisms and questions raised by Sceptics.