Hatırat ve Mektuplar Üzerinden Avrupa Medeniyetini Anlamak (1830-1923)
Dursun Önen, Kübra Fatma
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In this study, by the testimonies of the Ottoman intellectuals who lived in the Early Republic and Late Ottoman periods which lasted about a hundred years, the civilization map of this era was revealed. The Tanzimat period was a period in which Ottoman intellectuals experienced a great change of mentality. At the root of this change of mentality is the impact of differentiated relations with Europe. For this reason, the study started with the first observations about the West by Sadık Rifat Pasha, who was sent to Europe in 1837 during the Tanzimat period. How Ottoman intellectuals understood Europe was tried to be revealed through memoirs and letters, which were often ignored and attributed a secondary importance, that is, through first-hand information. These testimonies of the authors are important in terms of understanding historical realities and breaking points. In the memoirs and letters of the authors, European civilization was met with the words sivilizasyon and medeniyet in the Tanzimat period, terakki in the reign of Abdulhamid II and inkılap in the period of the Second Constitutional Period. The change of words in language follows a certain system. This system is closely related to the political and social events of the period. In this study, the mentality changes behind these words, important breaking points, and the currents of Western ideas that feed Turkish literature will be emphasized.