Denizer, Faik Utkan
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Any sentence that might be labeled as counterfactual basically conveys two meanings: First, that the event or situation referred in the sentence has not occurred (that there is not any fact), and second, that just the opposite of the event or situation in the sentence has occurred (that there is a fact). In other words, when the speaker makes a counter-factual sentence, he/she hypothetically conveys that the opposite of the event or situa-tion in the sentence has occurred. Although counterfactuality is primarily dealt with within framework of counterfactual conditional clauses in the literature, there are also clauses that convey counterfactuality despite not being a conditional clause. However, it is also possible to mention about counterfactual sentences which include or do not include an assumption. In this study, counterfactuality was not only dealt with within the framework of conditional sentences, but counterfactual sentences with and without conditional sentences, as well as counterfactual sentences with or without assumptions were examined in a holistic way. The first step in this thesis study was to determine the types of counterfactual sentenc-es. These types were found out looking at whether the speaker made an assumption directly and whether he/she estimated the outcomes of an assumption, or not. Accord-ingly, A1 sentences are sentences that directly make an assumption, where A2 sentenc-es are sentences that include a covert assumption, instead of a direct one. Both types of sentences might be followed by B sentences which include estimation and interpreta-tion about speculative outcomes of counterfactual events and situations. B sentences might also be made without any A1 or A2 sentence. The sub-types of each of these three types of sentences were also examined in the study and the markers used were found out. Along with this, a more detailed study was carried out on counterfactual conditional sentences with the most important A1 > B relationship, which acquired classification of conditional sentences. General discussion topics about counterfactual-ity were introduced throughout the study, for some of which solutions were suggested by the author.