Kamusal Alan ve İnsan Hakları
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Since ancient times, the concept of the public sphere has been one of the most debated topics in fields such as justice, politics, and economics in many countries. To the present day, the concept of the public sphere has always been thought and discussed in conjunction with political science. In these discussions, where is the public sphere located, how its boundaries can be defined, and what types of public spheres exist have always been the subject of debate. The purpose of this study is to first clarify the nature of the concept of the public sphere and to demonstrate the benefits that can be obtained by defining the concept according to human rights, rather than according to the rights of citizens. In the Introduction, the historical development of the concept of the public sphere from ancient times to the present day will be examined. In the first section, firstly, the nature of modern citizen rights will be determined. It will be demonstrated how the public sphere is conceptualized in Arendt, Habermas, Taylor, and Sennet within the framework of citizen rights. Additionally, it will be determined that social-cultural norms and political-legal norms arise as a result of activities conducted in the public sphere. In the second section, firstly, the nature of human rights together with the intersection set between citizen rights and human rights will be determined. The differences in the quality of social-cultural norms and political-legal norms that arise as a result of activities conducted in the public sphere, when they are conducted according to human rights, will be demonstrated. Following this, By establishing the relationship of different nature norms, which are the output of the public sphere, with people, the benefits they will provide to human beings will be displayed. In the Conclusion, the views of four different philosophers on what the public sphere is will be summarized. When connected to human rights, the difference in the output of the public sphere and the benefits it provides to humans will be demonstrated.