XIX. Yüzyıl Osmanlı İktisadi Düşüncesinde Dönüşüm: Bir Tanzimat Projesi Olarak Çukurova
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On the eve of the First World War, which ended the existence of the Ottoman Empire, the Çukurova region, which was one of the most important regions of the Empire's agricultural production, was, only half a century ago, covered with swamps, dominated by nomads and agricultural production was in a very limited area almost at subsistence level. This progress made in half a century is undoubtedly one of the most important achievements of the Tanzimat period. Although the world economy, namely the cotton shortage and the increasing demand for cotton that emerged with the American Civil War, played a role in this success, one of the most important roles was played by the Tanzimat bureaucracy that would open Çukurova to agricultural production and initiate the colonization of the plain. The economic mentality that pushed the Tanzimat bureaucracy to rearrange the region cannot be separated from the economic rationale of the Tanzimat period. In other words, the elimination of Çukurova from nomadic elements and the opening of the region to commercial agriculture is a product of the economic thought of the Tanzimat period and one of the most important economic projects. For this reason, the operation carried out by the Fırka-ı Islahiye against the nomads in 1865 can be called the "Çukurova Project of Tanzimat". However, although the operation started in 1865, interest in the region began to develop in the early years of the Tanzimat. The motivation that led to the Babıali’s envisage and then realization was a product of the state and civilization rationale that dominated the central administration after the Tanzimat period, as well as the economic thought. Therefore, the point which economic, administrative and civilizational mentalities have reached will also have consequences for nomads.