The Influence of Computational Design to the Process of Interior Architecture Design: In Terms of Generative, Parametric, Performance- Based and Algorithmic Design Methods.
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In Architectural and Interior Design projects, in addition to classical methods, it is thought that digital approach with extensive computer use is a need to respond today's advanced needs. Looking at the bibliographies on design, especially after the 2000s it is seen that digital sciences have played an effective role on design process. The aim has been, providing fast, objective and accurate design solutions to the changing design environment. In order to address the design method hurdles, sciences such as computer technology, mathematics and systematics have to be used more in interior architecture, as they have been long time used in architecture. In other words, it has been noticed that, more numerical and mathematical approaches are needed to make objective decisions on relatively subjective topic like design. Recent studies and scientific research in the field of interior design are mostly mathematical design and engineering solutions. The concept of “mathematical design and engineering” mentioned here; is a systematic approach based on mathematical and logical approaches and processes to achieve a computer-based digital solutions. The outcome of any interior design process in recent years can often be the result of a series of mathematical and logical processes. All or certain stages of the design process require advanced mathematical calculations and its implementation requires these calculations to be resolved. The problems that arise in the design process are solved by many digital software and provide the designer with wide range of options. In this study, the use of digital tools in computational interior design were searched and the results obtained are examined. Without ignoring the traditional methods and their users; inevitably the focus was on the samples of digital design solutions, which are accepted and applied faster by new generation designers. The use of digital data has opened new horizons for interior designers in the fields of form, space and design materials by removing some traditional rules and restrictions. This new approach has brought different and fast solutions to problems at different levels by combining the human thinking process and the creativity of computational sciences. In other words, the recent developments on computational design enabled the use of computer and creativity in design solutions collectively. In this collective and interrelated process, emphasizing a systematic model is not to master computational methods and techniques, but to adopt this computational way of thinking (Çağdaş G. & Bacınoğlu, Z. Çavuşoğlu, Ö. H. ,2015). In addition to known methods in the area of interior design; Parametric design, Generative Design, Performance-Based design, Algorithmic Design, Evolutionary Design, Adaptive Design, Performative Design Biomimetic Design Dynamic Design and Kinetic Design, methods are being used. These, relatively new and computational based digital design methods’ common properties are; enabling faster objective results, using common language, reaching consensus among stake holders, easy modelling, and using many components of design solutions However, it has been realized that for the use of these methods, the designer must have certain computer science skills and this creates limitations in finding wider application areas In this study, Parametric design, Generative Design, Performance-Based design, Algorithmic Design methods, which are the most researched (90%) of the above listed digital methods, are emphasized and their application examples from the perspective of interior design are examined. At the beginning of this study, the mostly researched four design methods were examined in terms of meaning and scope, and their applications in architecture, through extensive bibliography. It was seen in the bibliography scan that; while these new digital methods find intense application in architecture, they are still limited in terms of interior design applications. For this reason, the examples given for each method were approached from the perspective of interior design, and the computer-based digital method or methods used in the interior design process were investigated. Selected samples were carefully studied to ensure representing one or more digital methods. The findings are given with a sample project summary.
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