Teacher Talk And Learner Contributions In Inquiry Based Science Education: A Conversation Analytic Examination
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Inquiry-based learning is an important approach that is at the core of current science education programs and teaches students both the skills of inquiry and the concept. This approach has been examined and evaluated in many different ways under the name of inquiry based science education (IBSE) and inquiry based learning (IBL). However, there are few studies evaluating the interactional structure of inquiry-based science education classes, student-teacher interaction, interactional resources used by teachers, and positive or negative effects on learning opportunities of these resources. Despite the fact that the class is a social plane and that the learners are in the process of social interaction as a co-construction process, this lack of understanding prevents the understanding of interaction phenomenon of the nature of inquiry-based science classes. The lack of understanding of this interactive structure causes teachers to be able to provide the desired answers to the theoretical questions that are asked outside the classroom, but the applications in the class are not at the desired level. On this basis, this study examines inquiry-based science classroom interaction by Conversation Analysis Method to reveal the interactional phenomena within the classroom. Because Conversation Analysis Method has the potential to reveal the interactive nature of science classes by examining naturally evolving interaction data with a data-driven and participant-focused perspective, focusing on the participants' moments of success in social actions. The purpose of this research is to examine classroom interactions through teacher talk in inquiry-based science classes. In this context, firstly the different stages and the interactional features of the implementations in the inquiry-based science classes are revealed. It was later investigated what pedagogical aims and interactional tools teachers used at these different stages. Finally, these interactional tools and teacher talk were examined in terms of the teachers' strategies for supporting learner contribution. In line with these purposes, the study was conducted with two science teachers and their fifth-grade students. In classroom applications, six different inquiry-based science activities developed jointly by the researcher and the teacher were used. These activities were related to three different science units and were implemented during the half academic year.Each activity was performed during two lesson hours, and a total of 24 lesson hours were applied. The thesis data was emerged by audio and video recordings recorded during these applications. A database of 12 hours of inquiry based science interactions was examined line-by-line and turn-by-turn using conversation analysis. Findings show that there are interactionally different phases in the practice of inquiry-based science classes and that teacher-student interactions also change according to context. These stages were named (1) initiation of an inquiry, (2) focus on investigation, and (3) sharing understanding. These different stages of classroom practice are seen as processes that are entirely determined and managed by the teacher. Teacher-directed interaction shows characteristics that increase or decrease students' contribution in the classroom. Within these different phases of a science lesson, it has been determined that the pedagogical aims of the teachers and the interactive tools used to differ. For example; It is a pedagogical purpose to give turn as much as possible without evaluation of students answer in the initiation of an inquiry lesson phase, but the answers of the students are evaluated by both the teacher and peers in the sharing of understanding lesson phase. It has been determined that teacher talk and teachers' interactional strategies affect the learners' contribution. These strategies have been identified as (1) inviting peer assessment, (2) inviting peer guidance, (3) deferring the content feedback, and (4) reduced teacher intervention / stay one step back. In fact, the basis of these strategies is that the teacher shares his or her authority with the students and incorporates them into the interaction. These findings reveal the in-depth analysis of the teacher-student interaction in inquiry-based science classes. As a result, different interactional phases in the science lesson, how teachers shape them according to pedagogical goals, and teacher strategies to support student participation have been put forward. The results of this study are aimed at increasing the teachers' interactions within the classroom (Walsh, 2002) and their interactional awareness, and they provide valuable contributions both directly to the teachers and to literature. Especially, it has important contributions to the study of the subjects and the class that are dealt with in terms of science education under a different conceptual framework in depth. In addition, this study will present the contributions to Conversation Analysis research in terms of examining the interactional characteristics of the science classes. Lastly, it will be possible to increase the quality of the discourse in the classroom by proposing the use of findings and conceptual frameworks in teacher education, especially by increasing the interactive awareness of science teachers.