Almanya ve Türkiye'nin PISA 2000-2015 Sonuçlarındaki Değişimin İncelenmesi ve PISA Sonrası Almanya’daki Eğitim Reformları
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The purpose of this study is to compare the PISA results of Turkey and Germany up to the year 2015 and to investigate factors affecting the academic success in each country. The study was conducted with 25.536 students from Turkey between the years 2003 and 2015 and 31.108 students from Germany between the years 2000 and 2015, all of which were 15 years old. The academic success of the students in reading, mathematics and science was defined through the PISA cognitive test, and the socio-economic background, immigrant background and school type data was taken from questionnaires from the students and schools. The results of the study revealed that Germany, in the year 2000, was under the OECD average in reading and science and just close to the OECD average in mathematics. In the following years, the scores increased in all fields. Turkey's PISA scores have been under the OECD average in all fields but have increased every year until 2012. For Germany, 15-29% of the PISA score differences can be explained with differences in socio-economic background, 4-13% with differences in the immigrant background and 40-51% with differences in the type of school. The differences caused by the socio-economic background decreased over the years. For Turkey, 9-22% of the PISA score differences can be explained by the differences in the socio-economic background, and 25-33% by the differences in the type of school. Throughout the years the differences caused by socio-economic background decreased while the differences caused by the school type increased.