Argümantasyon Tabanlı Bilim Eğitiminde Biçimlendirici Değerlendirme: Bir Konuşma Çözümlemesi Araştırması
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In this study, the participant teachers' pedagogical aims and interactive resources, and the questions that teachers use as an interactional resource in the informal formative assessment process and purposes of using these questions were investigated with conversation analysis method at seventh-grade secondary school science classes in which argumentation-based science education approach was used. As a result of the study, it was determined that the teachers adopted a) introducing the activity, b) getting student attention, c) expressing what is expected from the students in the process, and d) checking the understanding of the explanations as pedagogical aim in the initialization phase of the course. In the process of argumentation, it was also found that teachers adopted various pedagogical aims in 10 different patterns. These are the patterns that encourage processes of claim, justification, explanation, clarification and situation of asking for an additional response, identifying and discussing the opposing views, the transition to the sub-topic, referring to the past, and highlighting the primary purpose of the activity and argumentation. In addition to these, both explicit and implicit positive and negative assessment patterns, and the pedagogical objectives exhibited in these designs were determined in the informal formative assessment process. In the interactional resources, it was determined that the teachers used extended turns, transition markers, verbal getting attention tools and comprehension check questions in the initialization phase of the course. As the process of argumentation and informal formative assessment progressed in a convergent manner, 12 different interactional resources were identified without any distinction in terms of interactional resources. By eliciting to the use of epistemic and echoic questions that are prominent among these interactional resources it was determined; what kind of epistemic and echoic questions were used, in which structures these questions were addressed and for which purposes the questions were used. It was shown that these questions served different purposes even though they were in the same structure in terms of informal formative assessment process.